Pages 70 - 83


1. Compare the feudal system of England between 1066AD and 1368AD with the social system of China during that period.



·         They both adopted a feudal system.

·         The king adopted some regulations to consolidate the feudal system.

·         The peasants were at the bottom of society and were oppressed.

·         The king was superior (in the beginning).

·         After the king died, his son would become the king.


·         England: the king reformed the law court.

·         England: the power of the king became limited, while in China it was absolute.


Jack (01-4)



·         The power of religious leaders was greater in England than in China.

·         Power and the ownership of land were more centralised in China (all land belonged to the king).


2. How was the power of England’s king reduced?


First, Henry II murdered the Archbishop of Canterbury - Becket, which made the English people angry.  He did penance at Becket’s tomb to satisfy public feeling.  That event was a great victory for the church.


Second, after Henry II’s death, John became King.  [As a result of his arbitrary reign, the barons] forced him to sign the Great Charter.  Some provisions of the Great Charter limited the King’s power.  Rule of law began to challenge feudal despotism.


Third, Simon de Montfort led the nobles in a struggle against with Henry III.  The result was that the king and the entire royal family were defeated and captured.  Simon de Montfort reformed the entire government.  Then Parliament was born.  After that, the power of the king was more limited.


Alice (01-4)


3. Do you think that the justice system developed during the time of Henry II was an improvement over the old system?


Yes, I think so.  Before Henry II’s day, there had been the Anglo-Saxon ordeals, such as burning fire and boiling water and the Norman trial by battle (duel).  I think it is very cruel and inhuman.  A lot of innocent people were forced to admit to a fabricated crime when they couldn’t bear the excruciation.  Once had they been sentenced, they would never have a chance to clarify the facts.  The justice system developed during the time of Henry II produced a new system - the circuit courts and the jury system.  Gradually people began to doubt the trial by ordeals or duel.  The importance of evidence increased in making judgments.  The primitive method of trial was finally replaced by the jury system.  So, it is an improvement over the old system.


Maggie 01-3
Pages 98 - 116


1. Do you think it strange that the British republic lasted for only about 11 years?


In my opinion, I don’t think it strange.

First, I think we should think about the members of Parliament.  Most people in Parliament were nobles, who had a very strong effect in Britain since the beginning of Parliament.  They had lived in the old monarchy for so long that they didn’t want to change it into a republic.

Second, the people didn’t know what a republic was.  Although Charles I was beheaded, the old concept of monarchy did not disappear.  The monarchy had become a deep-seated concept to the people.

Third, I think the most important aspect was that the Left Wing of Parliament, which was the leader of the English Bourgeois Revolution, was very weak.  It was composed of free farmers, tradesmen, and artisans of the country towns.  They were too weak to control the country.

From the above points, we can say it wasn’t strange that the British republic lasted for only about 11 years, from 1649 to 1660.  It was a historical regularity.


Lilian (01-2)


2. How did the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century affect peasant farmers and the upper class?


The Industrial Revolution made the peasant farmers even poorer.  The capitalist class needed land to build factories.  So some of them took the land from the farmers by force.  After their land was seized, the peasant farmers could not make their living by farming.  Finally, many of them went to work in the factories and they became the proletariat.


The Industrial Revolution pushed the middle class to the dominant position.  It was really bad news for the upper class.  The middle class became the richest class.  That was a big threat to the upper class.  The upper class’s position in the society was not as high as before.  They also lost some privilege in political affairs.


Lucy (01-1)


3. The People’s Charter of 1837 listed 6 points, but what was its overall aim?


I think its overall aim is to improve the workers’ political rights.  They try to achieve this aim mostly through the improvement of their right to vote.  The aim of the Charter is to allow workers to take part in political activities and exercise their political rights.


Harriet (01-4)
Pages 117 - 128

1. How was England’s colonisation of India different to the colonisation of America?


The British government did not send as many colonizers to India as they sent to America.  They sent these colonizers to India in order to let them take key positions in the society of India, so they could control the whole country and its people.  In my opinion, to obtain great benefit and wealth was their main purpose.  As for America, the British government forced the native Indians to leave their homeland.  A lot of English residents went to American colonies.  They took the land as their own territory.  Their main purpose in America was to expand the territory, I think.


Lucy (01-1)



2. How did the British Empire affect China?


This period of history had a great influence on china.  We can’t ever forget it.  After they were rebuffed by China, the East India Company started to smuggle opium into China.  The people were seriously harmed by this kind of drug, so they’re called “East Asian’s Patients”.  In 1840, the Opium War was started.  China was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanking.  China began to fall into a country of half colonialism and half feudalism.


Monica (01-1)



3. Did the two World Wars affect England positively or negatively?


The two World Wars affected England negatively.  The Britain Empire suffered great losses in the wars.  Both its wealth and power declined.  After World War II, the Britain Empire became history and almost all the colonies gained independence.  And the Britain Commonwealth finally replaced the Britain Empire.


Diana (01-1)

Pages 239 - 257

1. For what main reasons did people immigrate to America in the early years?


There were many reasons but I think the most important reason was the religious dispute.  Most of the early immigrants suffered from persecution because their religious beliefs were different from the rules of the Church of England.  In order to seek freedom of religion they immigrated to America.  The next reason was that many people wanted to become rich, so they went to America where the land was abundant and the natural resources were rich.


Jennifer (01-2)



2. Do you think America had good reason to start the War of Independence?


I think colonialism itself is not just.  And many people in the colonies couldn’t bear the high rate of tax and the exploitation from England.  They had to fight against [England] for their freedom and independence.  After the rejection of the Declaration of Rights and Grievances, they recognized that there was no hope for a satisfactory reconciliation; the only way to settle the dispute was war.


Bee (01-3)


America started the War of Independence on the basis of human rights.  But I think that’s not a good reason, it is just a pretext.  The real reason was the economic benefit.


Christina (01-2)



3. America’s army seemed weaker than the British.  How did it eventually win?


They persisted in the armed struggle unyieldingly, used the contradiction between the English and the French to obtain aid from France, and isolated the British army.  But the most important thing is that the American people craved their freedom and their rights.  This made them unafraid of any difficulty.  So they got the final victory.


Sophia (01-1)

Pages 258 - 280


1. What factors led to the development of the Federal Government?


After independence, there existed much conflict and contradiction among the 13 states, each for the sake of its own interests.  Besides, society was rather unsteady because of financial problems.  Therefore, it was necessary that a new form of government should be established to control these states and to pass and enforce laws for the different states.


Maggie (01-1)



2. In what ways did the size of the U.S.A. increase between 1800 and 1850?


There are 3 ways.  Firstly, purchase.  The USA purchased New Orleans and the whole of Louisiana only at the price of 12 million dollars.

Secondly, start war.  After the Mexican War, over 500,000 square miles was ceded to America.

Thirdly, large scale expansion to the West.


May (01-3)



3. What was life like for a frontiersman?


They lived in the wilderness far away from others, and had to do everything by themselves.  Their work was painstaking and hard.  But they didn’t mind these things because they got the most important things—land and freedom.


Sophia (01-1)

1. What caused the 1862 Civil War?


Whether to abolish slavery caused the 1862 Civil War.  The Northern states of America developed in industry, there appeared the manufacturer and businessmen class, so they wanted to abolish slavery to develop industry.  But in the Southern states, there was little industry and they only depended on their plantations, so they needed a lot of slavery and did not want to abolish slavery.


Annie (01-3)



(a) The Northern states supported the law of protective tariff, while the Southern states were dissatisfied.

(b) The Northern states wanted to organize the new territory in the west as free states, while the southern states wanted to organize it as a slaveholding states.


Rose (01-1)



2. How were the black slaves freed?  Did they gain full equality afterwards?


After the victorious Civil War, the black slaves were set free.  But they were not treated equally with the white people.  They didn’t have the right to vote and were not equally educated.  Their social status was very low.


Catherine (01-4)



now, black people’s equal rights is still a social issue in America.


Vivian (01-2)



3. What are some characteristics of America’s economic development after the war?


I think there are three characteristics.  First is the use of new inventions and new technology.  Second is that many industries were controlled by some big companies.  Third is that the development was instant and extensive.


Florence (01-1)

Pages 305 - 316


1. Why did America enter World War 1?


America was worried that if Britain lost the war, it would be unable to pay back the money which America had loaned.  When Germany urged Mexico to attack the US, this gave the US government the excuse they needed to enter the war.



2. How did President Roosevelt try to solve the economic problems of the Great Depression?


Roosevelt’s “New Deal” was a policy which greatly increased government intervention in the country’s economy.  This included the introduction of social welfare (helping the poor and unemployed), and the start of many public projects in order to create more jobs.






Pages 317 - 327


1. How was America involved in World War 2?


At first America didn’t get involved in the war but just provided goods and weapons to the Allies.  However American economic policy towards Japan made it angry.  The Japanese air raid on Pearl Harbor was the immediate cause of America’s entry into the war.


Cynthia (01-1)



2. After the war, what was America’s role in international affairs?


After the war, America became the most powerful nation in the capitalist world, opposed to the Soviet Union which was the strongest power in the communist world…the “cold war” time was coming.  And America interfered with other nations internal affairs in all respects.


Irene (01-1)