Pages 70 - 83
1. Compare the
feudal system of
· They both adopted a feudal system.
· The king adopted some regulations to consolidate the feudal system.
· The peasants were at the bottom of society and were oppressed.
· The king was superior (in the beginning).
· After the king died, his son would become the king.
The power of religious leaders
was greater in
Power and the ownership of land
were more centralised in
2. How was the
First, Henry II murdered the Archbishop of Canterbury - Becket, which made the English people angry. He did penance at Becket’s tomb to satisfy public feeling. That event was a great victory for the church.
Second, after Henry II’s death, John became King. [As a result of his arbitrary reign, the barons] forced him to sign the Great Charter. Some provisions of the Great Charter limited the King’s power. Rule of law began to challenge feudal despotism.
Third, Simon de Montfort led the nobles in a struggle against with Henry III. The result was that the king and the entire royal family were defeated and captured. Simon de Montfort reformed the entire government. Then Parliament was born. After that, the power of the king was more limited.
3. Do you think that the justice system developed during the time of Henry II was an improvement over the old system?
Yes, I think so. Before Henry II’s day, there had been the Anglo-Saxon ordeals, such as burning fire and boiling water and the Norman trial by battle (duel). I think it is very cruel and inhuman. A lot of innocent people were forced to admit to a fabricated crime when they couldn’t bear the excruciation. Once had they been sentenced, they would never have a chance to clarify the facts. The justice system developed during the time of Henry II produced a new system - the circuit courts and the jury system. Gradually people began to doubt the trial by ordeals or duel. The importance of evidence increased in making judgments. The primitive method of trial was finally replaced by the jury system. So, it is an improvement over the old system.
Pages 98 - 116
1. Do you think it strange that the British republic lasted for only about 11 years?
In my opinion, I don’t think it strange.
First, I think we
should think about the members of Parliament. Most people in Parliament were nobles,
who had a very strong effect in
Second, the people didn’t know what a republic was. Although Charles I was beheaded, the old concept of monarchy did not disappear. The monarchy had become a deep-seated concept to the people.
Third, I think the most important aspect was that the Left Wing of Parliament, which was the leader of the English Bourgeois Revolution, was very weak. It was composed of free farmers, tradesmen, and artisans of the country towns. They were too weak to control the country.
From the above points, we can say it wasn’t strange that the British republic lasted for only about 11 years, from 1649 to 1660. It was a historical regularity.
2. How did the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century affect peasant farmers and the upper class?
The Industrial Revolution made the peasant farmers even poorer. The capitalist class needed land to build factories. So some of them took the land from the farmers by force. After their land was seized, the peasant farmers could not make their living by farming. Finally, many of them went to work in the factories and they became the proletariat.
The Industrial Revolution pushed the middle class to the dominant position. It was really bad news for the upper class. The middle class became the richest class. That was a big threat to the upper class. The upper class’s position in the society was not as high as before. They also lost some privilege in political affairs.
3. The People’s Charter of 1837 listed 6 points, but what was its overall aim?
I think its overall aim is to improve the workers’ political rights. They try to achieve this aim mostly through the improvement of their right to vote. The aim of the Charter is to allow workers to take part in political activities and exercise their political rights.
Pages 117 - 128
The British government did not send as many colonizers to
2. How did the
This period of history had a great influence on china. We can’t ever forget it. After they were rebuffed by
3. Did the two
World Wars affect
The two World Wars affected
Pages 239 - 257
For what main reasons did people immigrate to
There were many reasons but I think the most important reason was the
religious dispute. Most of the
early immigrants suffered from persecution because their religious beliefs were
different from the rules of the Church of England. In order to seek freedom of religion
they immigrated to
2. Do you
I think colonialism itself is not just. And many people in the colonies couldn’t
bear the high rate of tax and the exploitation from
They persisted in the armed struggle unyieldingly, used the
contradiction between the English and the French to obtain aid from
Pages 258 - 280
1. What factors led to the development of the Federal Government?
After independence, there existed much conflict and contradiction among the 13 states, each for the sake of its own interests. Besides, society was rather unsteady because of financial problems. Therefore, it was necessary that a new form of government should be established to control these states and to pass and enforce laws for the different states.
2. In what
ways did the size of the
There are 3
ways. Firstly, purchase. The
Secondly, start war.
After the Mexican War, over 500,000 square miles was ceded to
Thirdly, large scale expansion to the West.
3. What was life like for a frontiersman?
They lived in the wilderness far away from others, and had to do everything by themselves. Their work was painstaking and hard. But they didn’t mind these things because they got the most important things—land and freedom.
1. What caused the 1862 Civil War?
abolish slavery caused the 1862 Civil War.
The Northern states of
(a) The Northern states supported the law of protective tariff, while the Southern states were dissatisfied.
Northern states wanted to organize the new territory in the west as
2. How were the black slaves freed? Did they gain full equality afterwards?
After the victorious Civil War, the black slaves were set free. But they were not treated equally with the white people. They didn’t have the right to vote and were not equally educated. Their social status was very low.
… now, black people’s equal rights is still a social issue in
3. What are
some characteristics of
I think there are three characteristics. First is the use of new inventions and new technology. Second is that many industries were controlled by some big companies. Third is that the development was instant and extensive.
Pages 305 - 316
1. Why did
2. How did President Roosevelt try to solve the economic problems of the Great Depression?
Pages 317 - 327
1. How was
2. After the
war, what was
After the war,